FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is one of the oldest protocols for transferring data over a network,

built on a client-server architecture.

At the same time, as before, it remains one of the most popular and simplest ways to interact with site files.

How FTP works
What is it for
FTP client
Where to find login details
Vulnerability and protected versions
How FTP works
Before starting work, the client enters the session, specifying the login information, namely:

Login and password
Server \ Host (technical address or IP)
Port (as required)

After sending this information, the server will check it and return an appropriate response, and if everything is fine, the session will begin.

FTP usually uses two or more channels to connect to the server:

The first one is always used for connection management, i.e. commands are sent through it and responses are returned (port 21).

The second and more are already used to transfer the data itself. (Port is selected automatically)

What is it for
FTP is used to access information located on the server. Unlike HTTP, it does not require a web interface for direct file access.

For example, you can access your site files and edit them directly, or download / save them to your computer, for example, making a backup copy of a site, folders or individual files.

Or, you can simply store your data on the server, using the server as a regular cloud storage;

FTP client
There are many programs that act as an FTP client to make it easier to access and interact with the server. They present information in a form that is convenient and familiar to us.

Here are a couple of examples of popular FTP clients:

FileZilla is one of the most popular and free FTP connection programs that has such advantages as FTPS support, remote editing and working with large files.

Total Commander is also a simple and convenient tool for exchanging data with a server, in which, for example, there is a search for files by text in it. It is also free software.

In reality, there are many such programs: WinSCP, FireFTP, WinSCP, Direct FTP, CuteFTP, Cyberduck, etc. Everyone, if necessary, will be able to choose the most convenient option for themselves.

Where to find login details
Usually, all the data for starting an FTP session is sent to your email after purchasing a hosting, along with access from the control panel and MySQL.

If, for some reason, they are not there, or you need to create a new login / password pair for another person (for example, with access to a specific folder), then you can always do this on your hosting or in the control panel.

For example, if you have an IPSmanager panel, you can do this in the main section -> FTP users

Here you can create or edit existing FTP users.


When creating, you must specify a name or login, password and home directory, which the user will get after the session starts.


Vulnerability and protected versions
FTP is simple and convenient, but it was developed at a time when connections seemed reliable. But at the moment, when any of your connections can be intercepted, alleged attackers can intercept your access. they are all transmitted unencrypted.

He also does not have a check for the number of incorrect attempts to enter a login and password, which opens up the possibility of brute force (rough programmatic enumeration of all possible logins and passwords).

Therefore, today, it is better to use secure versions of FTP - FTPS (FTP / SSL), SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol) or FTP over SSH (Secure Shell)